Deforestation is the massive reduction in forest areas across the world. Deforestation can be deliberate, natural, or accidental. But human activities make it happen faster and earlier. With the growing need for land for agriculture, industry, and containing the increased population, human beings cut down or burn the trees indiscriminately. And this act of human beings has already left the green part of the earth down to about 30%. But all living creatures depend on the trees in one way or another. So, if deforestation continues at its current pace, the destruction of life or the earth is inevitable.
Amidst so many causes, the need for more agricultural land is the biggest driver of deforestation. The overgrowing demand for food results in deforestation to provide enough land to grow crops. And according to the food and agricultural organization(FAO), it is eighty percent of global deforestation. What is worth mentioning is that the lack of arable land is also responsible for deforestation quite well. Moreover, 19% of global deforestation occurs to make room for cattle grazing and their nourishment.
Illegal logging is also one of the top causes of deforestation. A report says that fifteen percent of annual global greenhouse gas emission occurs due to deforestation from logging and timber conversion. So, it is needless to say that large portions of our forests are cutting down to build houses or meet the people’s need for wood-based products like paper, match-stick, furniture, etc.
Moreover, there is always a tendency among people to move from rural areas to urban areas. This tendency is also a contributing factor to deforestation. This urban growth makes the development of more houses and the expansion of cities, highways mandatory to a great extent, which further leads to deforestation.
Human activities are indeed the main contributing factors to deforestation. But natural incidents such as forest fire or parasite-caused diseases also result in deforestation to a certain extent.
Indeed, there are thousands of interdependencies and interconnections in the natural world. So, each miner addition or subtraction or each change can have a catastrophic consequence in its balance. When it comes to deforestation, it is also no exception.
The loss of the biological diversity of the earth is the direct consequence of deforestation. According to national geographic, 80% of the world’s plants and animals live in forests, and many cannot live elsewhere. The destruction of forests leads to the loss of their natural habitat and makes them vulnerable to extinction.
Deforestation is also a threat to the global climate. The indiscriminate cutting down of trees makes the world’s weather hotter and threatens the very existence of living beings. It also changes the rainfall pattern making an area too dry for plants to exist. Deforestation is indeed leading us to a path of inevitable calamity.
Another unavoidable consequence of deforestation is soil erosion. Trees block the sun’s heat which helps the soil dry out slowly. But deforestation advances the direct exposure of soil to the sun’s heat. As a result, the mixture inside dries, nutrients evaporate, and eventually contribute to the breach down of organic matter. And the soil becomes fragile. So, when it rains, soil erosion takes place. Along with the damage to the hydroelectric structure and irrigation infrastructure, its breakdown of the organic matter declines productivity.
So, it is clear that if deforestation continues unabated, it will have severe effects on climate, plants, humans, and other living beings. And to avoid this, we must stop the human activities that are causing it. We must plant trees more and more. The government should also pass strict laws against deforestation.