Renewable energy is the kind of energy that derives from natural resources and can be used again and again. The sources of renewable energy are sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. These natural sources of energy are sustainable and will never run out. And it is in the sense that if there is no earth, sun, wind, and water, there will be no human life. So, khemani rightly said, “As long as human life is there, there will be earth, sun, wind, and water, and the energy from these sources will also be available as long as they are there.” Because of the sustainability of these renewable energy sources, these have taken the spotlight now.
Besides, one also can never deny the fact that the non-renewable sources -coal, gas, fossil -of energy will deplete with time. According to Lair, ” there will probably be sufficient oil and gas for this century, and coal for 2 or more.”
Also, with the rapid growth of the world population, there is a never-ending demand for energy especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. Therefore, researchers around the world opine that the world must convert from traditional sources into renewable energy sources, and also diversify the sources.
But it is to note that Bangladesh has made great strides in the renewable energy sector in the last few years. At present, Bangladesh generates 730.62 MW of electricity from renewable sources and expects that it will be 40% of the total electricity generation by 2041. As the Bangladesh government emphasized renewable energy sources along with the traditional sources, 95 percent of its population now have the access to electricity.
The prospect and opportunities for generating energy from renewable sources are very promising in Bangladesh. And it is needless to say, solar energy is a big success in Bangladesh. According to RER21’s Renewable 2020 global report published in March 2021 as of now, around 8 percent of the country’s total power generation capacity is from off-grid solar. Besides, the solar home system is getting overwhelming popularity day by day in the off-grid-ruler region. Being located in between latitudes 20″ 34″ and 26″ 39″ north and longitudes 80″ and 90″ 41″, Bangladesh can make great use of the sun’s energy. Moreover, 70% of the year, there is sunny weather in Bangladesh, and also it doesn’t produce any waste and emissions. Hence, the capability of utilizing solar energy to the fullest can be a pragmatic solution to the power crisis problem in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has already introduced a National solar energy action plan to get maximum solar energy by 2041.
Another promising renewable energy source in Bangladesh is biogas. It is a mixture of gases that are produced by the breakdown of organic matter like plants, or agricultural, municipal, kitchen wastes, or animal manures. Such types of wastes are available in Bangladesh and have great fuel value. And Bangladesh has already made a remarkable achievement in producing biogas for cooking, heating, and electricity generation especially in rural areas. Bangladesh has already planted 25000 biogas plants and also installed 20 million ameliorate ovens to save biomass fuel. A report published in 2013 showed us that the daily per capita/per person solid waste was nearly(300,400) grams, and municipal waste was 8.65 million except 102.6 million tonnes of waste from other types of domestic animals. Thus, biogas has a real possibility to meet the future power demand of Bangladesh.
Besides, what can be the most reliable source of energy for Bangladesh is the tidal energy. Tidal energy is the form of hydropower that converts the energy from tidal action-the natural rise and fall of tides- into electricity. Bangladesh has a huge potentiality in generating electricity from the motion of tides or placing damns or barrages diagonally in a river’s mouth with turbines. The tides that occur in the coastal areas of Bangladesh are 2 to 5 meters. Though there is a certain potentiality in generating tidal power by applying low head tidal movement and medium hand tidal movements, Bangladesh has only one power plant which generates power from the hydropower. To cope with the growing demands of electricity Bangladesh must make the best use of this natural source.
Wind power can also be a solution to the power crisis problem for Bangladesh. Bangladesh has long coastal areas and islands and here the wind blows in different patterns in different seasons. The average wind speed remains between 3 to 4-5m/s from March to September and 1.7 to 2.3 m/s for the residual period of the year in Bangladesh. Bangladesh government has already accomplished a 1000KW capacity wind battery hybrid power project in kutubdia Islands.
Bangladesh has already made good progress in generating power using renewable sources. Still, it is not up to the mark, so, it is high time Bangladesh paid undivided attention to generate energy from these renewable sources.